Holistic Software Engineering



All organizational problems in software development can be traced back to the erroneous assumption that developing software systems is like developing other large, complex things, like buildings or cars.

In a company producing cars, for example, the process is divided into two roles, broadly speaking. There are people who design the cars, creating blueprints and specifications as to how the engine components and various features will fit together functionally — let’s call them designers — and then there are the people who actually assemble the cars — let’s call them assemblers.

The assemblers need specialized skills to operate the various tools used to put together the components at the assembly plant. But they don’t have to know how cars work. They certainly don’t need a mental model of how a modern vehicle is designed. They are mostly concerned with the actual assembly process, how to make it more efficient, how to avoid costly accidents and delays in the assembly process, and so on.

The designers, on the other hand, have a completely different skill set. They have a deep knowledge of what kind of engine layouts work, what effect changing certain components have on the overall performance of the car, and so on. They talk to executive leadership about what kind of designs are selling, learn about performance improvements that can be made, and respond to problems in the design by producing new designs.

We also have a middle tier of managers that serve as connective tissue between these groups. They help to keep communication working smoothly, resolve issues with employees, and identify needs for new hires as the production line grows.

(OK, this is probably not exactly how automotive design works, but bear with me!)

Divergent Levels of Understanding

It’s tempting to think that building something like a mobile app works the same way. Perhaps you’re shaking your head now as you read this article, thinking to yourself, “Of course that’s how it works!”

In software, it’s quite common to have the assembler and designer roles separate, especially in corporate environments. From a hiring standpoint, this makes sense.

Let’s say we are developing a new mobile app front end to our back end system. We can hire an off-shore team of contractors to put together an iOS app, and throw in a senior back-end engineer from the main office to help direct them on Zoom calls once or twice a week. This might help us keep our personnel costs down, right?

Already we’ve split the task of building software into two roles. Now we have a senior engineer who’s really doing the design phase of the project and a group of assemblers who are actually doing the programming.

Let’s say we also have a product manager to oversee this project. The PM knows how the mobile app needs to work.

Notice how divergent the different levels of understanding of the project have become. We have different humans handling three distinct levels of understanding:

  1. What is the project supposed to do?
  2. What is the best approach to meet these requirements?
  3. How are we going to implement this best approach?

Roles Within Software

The people who understand the product and what it needs to be able to do in the long term have titles like product manager or software engineering manager. They usually don’t write code or implement the design. Sometimes they have development experience, but not always. These roles have a level 1 understanding of the project.

Even software architects frequently spend little time implementing designs. Usually, they’re concerned with making sure the team has the right approach, and they have to justify that approach. Sometimes a similar role is taken by lead engineers who are responsible for guiding the team toward an implementation. These are your level 2s.

And, of course, there are often several engineers working on implementing the design. Usually when we say engineer we mean someone writing application code to be deployed either to a server somewhere or delivered to a browser in a bundle of compressed JavaScript. These folks are deep in level three.

But there are also those tasked with ensuring the environment where the application actually runs is healthy. For maddening reasons, we call them devops engineers. In a past life, these brave souls might have been called sys admins. If they’re working in a cloud provider, like Amazon Web Services, we’ve sometimes taken to calling them cloud engineers because their job is to provision cloud resources for the team. These ops roles are also level three.

Split Brain

In our zeal to make software development more efficient, I think we’ve erroneously taken this metaphor of the assembly line and applied it to software.

Instead of making things more efficient, we split the complete understanding of the project, so when we make changes in the system, we now have to begin at level one, and translate the requirements all the way down to level three.

Dare I ask, is there a better way? Let’s let our imaginations go wild for a moment. I give you the holistic software engineer.

A Holistic Software Engineer

holistic software engineer is capable of:

  • Designing a system from beginning to end, taking into account various tradeoffs.
  • Administering a working system, be it in the cloud or on-premises.
  • Communicating these concepts to non-technical staff outside the team, e.g. executives or sales.
  • Understanding the need that the project fills for the user, whether it be an internal user like an executive or an external customer.

In other words, the holistic software engineer has a complete understanding of the project — from its purpose right down to its implementation details.

They can speak to the various decisions that went into designing the project. They can quickly iterate on new designs when the implementation in the “assembly” of the software runs into performance problems. They can also understand how decisions impact users of the system, and what aspects of the system’s performance would be most important to its users.

The most useful contributors on software projects are the ones that have this holistic understanding. They can bridge the gap between the different levels that the organizational strategy has created.

They could come from either direction. They might be a technical person who has gone out of their way to understand the product side of things.

Or they could be a product person who has done a lot of face-to-face work with engineers to understand how the system was designed and what its limitations are.

Whichever direction the holistic software engineer comes from, they’re useful because they’ve started to re-compose the complete understandingthat was lost when we split roles along with levels of understanding.

A Challenge

I challenge you to think about your own role in these terms and try to take on a more holistic role.

Are you working at level one, with a solid understanding of the product but no idea how to design or implement it? Try learning some technical skills so you can understand what the engineers mean when they say that service X needs to call service Y.

Or are you working at level two, where you sketch out designs of systems but cannot be bothered to iterate on those designs when your offshore team runs into problems? You’d be a better architect if you dove into the code and had a solid grasp of where the product is heading.

Perhaps you’re deep in level three, heads down in code, but not really aware of how the project might change and grow in the future. I would challenge you to think of yourself not as a “coder” but as someone with a role in structuring the implementation to allow the design to evolve to meet future product needs. Talk to product and ask questions to fill in the gaps in your understanding.


We can all improve in our craft if we have a little more understanding of the concerns of the people we interface with at work. I present this concept of holistic engineering as a way of getting at the kind of empathetic approach that I find works best in software teams.

I think that the Agile movement was an attempt to re-constitute this holistic engineer. Processes like point estimation, storyboards, and so on are just formalized ways of communicating technical challenges to management and communicating product requirements to engineers.

Whatever system we use, the end objective is the same: engineers and product experts working together toward a complete understanding of the project, so that progress can be made. Try to understand the whole picture and you will be more useful as a contributor, no matter what your role is.

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